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By Noel Weeks

The prevalence of treaties during the historic close to East has been investigated on a few events, often for you to get to the bottom of sure questions bobbing up within the biblical box. due to that spotlight, the life of an analogous establishment in a few varied cultures has no longer been handled as an issue in itself. in general the lifestyles of treaties in the course of the region has been taken without any consideration, or an easy borrowing version has been used to provide an explanation for how comparable types got here for use in several cultures. Why kinds have been comparable around the sector has now not been probed. This paintings investigates treaty occurrences in numerous cultures and reveals that the varieties used correlate with methods of keeping political regulate either internally and over vassals. similar options are projected in professional money owed of heritage. hence you can still approximately distinguish threats in line with strength from persuasion in response to benevolence and old precedent, notwithstanding numerous combos of those take place. there's a most likely additional connection of the capability selected to the measure of centralisation of energy in the society. Underlying the neighborhood traditions is a typical culture which should be dated to the pre-literate interval. Biblical covenants healthy inside this development. The cultures handled are Mesopotamia, the Hittites, Egypt, Syrian centres and Israel.

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Extra info for Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships

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Weinfeld claims that both treaties and grants share historical introduction, border delineations, stipulations, witnesses, bles62. Charpin 'Une alliance contre 1'Elam et le ritual du lipit napistim', p. 114. 63. K. J. Augustin, 1975), pp. 157-70. 64. EA 1:64-66; 2:1; 4:15-17; 6:8-11; 8:8-12; 9:19-28; 11:22. 65. M. Weinfeld, 'The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and the Ancient Near East', JAOS 90 (1970), pp. 184-203. 66 However, they differ in that the treaty imposes obligations upon the vassal, whereas the kudurru has the reverse effect.

53 From the context the likely reference is to a treaty concluded between, or under negotiation between, Shamshi-Adad and the king of Eshnunna. Unambiguous evidence of a treaty between Assyria and another city comes from the period after the fall of the dynasty of Shamshi-Adad. 55 In the extant parts of the text it is clear that Till-Abnu is the addressee who swore an oath: You shall speak truth wholeheartedly with us, the city of Assur and the trade cooperative as long as you live. You shall keep what is in this tablet, [concerning] which you swore, to the city of Assur, to any Assyrian and to the trade cooperative'56 The stipulations are poorly preserved but there is reference to the kdrum in Apum and to donkeys.

Foster, Before the Muses (Vol. I; Bethesda, CDL, 1993), pp. 209-29. 81. Ebeling, Bruchstucke eines politischen Propagandagedichtes, p. 15, 'IV':30, 32. 82. Ebeling, Bruchstucke eines politischen Propagandagedichtes, ,. p. 15, '1V':26. 83. Ebeling, Bruchstucke eines politischen Propagandagedichtes, . p.. 19, 'V':15, 16, 19, 20. 84 The ascription of a specific judgement to each deity is in accord with the common pattern in Mesopotamian curses. This text uses history to establish the rectitude of the Assyrian cause.

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