Download Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton PDF

By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton

This e-book experiences present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation attaining the Earth's floor. It incorporates a record of techniques that can aid to farther develop wisdom during this area.

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Small ice phase particles can grow to precipitation size by any combination of vapour deposition, collection of small water droplets (riming) or collection of other ice particles (aggregation). These processes require significant time, sometimes comparable to or exceeding the lifetime of a cloud. If the Lagrangian time scale of the cloud particles is shorter than the 2 Principles of Cloud and Precipitation Formation 15 time needed to produce precipitation, all the condensed water vapour may evaporate in the atmosphere without any precipitation reaching the surface.

The saturation vapour pressure decreases when the temperature decreases (Clausius-Clapeyron). The most common way clouds form is therefore when a buoyant parcel of air is lifted (convective ascent) and cooled by adiabatic expansion. 658C per 100 m) than in clear air adiabatic ascent (18C per 100 m), because of the latent heat released by condensation. The corresponding rate of condensation depends on the temperature and pressure of the cloud cell. For example at 900 m and 208C, it is in the order of 2 g mÀ3 kmÀ1 of ascent.

5 Variations of the relative humidity and supersaturation adjacent to droplets of (1) pure water (blue), and adjacent to solution droplets containing the following fixed masses of salt: (2) 10À19 kg of NaCl (red), (3) 10À18 kg of NaCl (orange), (4) 10À17 kg of NaCl (brown), (5) 10À19 kg of (NH4)2SO4 (green), and (6) 10À18 kg of (NH4)2SO4 (violet). e. 100%). As a droplet increases in size, the lowering of the equilibrium vapour pressure above its surface due to the dissolved material becomes increasingly less and the equilibrium vapour pressure over a small curved droplet (Kelvin curvature effect) becomes the dominant influence.

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