By L. Robert, T. Fulop, T. Fulop
Getting older encouraged a great number of theories attempting to rationalize the getting older technique universal to all residing beings. during this e-book an important environmental and intrinsic mechanisms keen on the getting older technique and in its pathological outcomes are reviewed. in addition theoretical and experimental facts of an important theoretical components in line with Darwinian evolution, mobile getting older, position of telephone membranes, loose radicals and oxidative procedures, receptor-mediated reactions, the extracellular matrix and immune features in addition to crucial environmental and intrinsic mechanisms desirous about the getting older strategy and in its pathological effects are mentioned. those shows of theories and comparable experimental evidence supply a world evaluation of contemporary ideas of the biology of the getting older strategy and are of crucial studying not just for experts during this box but additionally for practitioners of clinical, scientific, social and experimental sciences.
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Extra resources for Aging: Facts and Theories
2014 S. Karger AG, Basel The Concept of Aging of Proliferative Cells The study of aging of proliferative cells was initiated by the work of Hayﬂick and Moorhead  who proposed that the loss of the division potential of human ﬁbroblasts through proliferation in vitro is an expression of aging at the cellular level. After a given number of population doublings, cells enter a stage of irreversible growth arrest, which was called senescence. The ﬁrst experiments attempting to understand the kinetics of proliferation of these cell populations concluded that there is an entire spectrum of cells with different cycling probabilities, which evolve with an increasing heterogeneity [2–5].
The conﬂicting results in this case and others could be due to the time the cells were harvested; the data can vary if the cells are used in pre-phase IV or on the contrary deep into phase IV. The existence of different mechanisms leading to the postmitotic states was disregarded claiming that there are different pathways to cell senescence. Quest for the ‘Senescent Cell’ in vivo A search started for markers of the senescent cell to check for its presence in vivo; the lysosomal enzyme β-galactosidase was chosen to detect postmitotic cells .
Exp Gerontol 1993; 28:217–232. 16 Shanley DP, Kirkwood TBL: Evolution of the human menopause. Bioessays 2001; 23:282–287. 17 de Condorcet MJAN (de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet): Esquisse d’un tableau des progrès historiques de l’esprit humain. Paris, Agasse, 1793–1794. 18 Butler PJ, Jones DR: Physiology of diving of birds and mammals. Physiol Rev 1997; 77:837–899. 19 Klass M, Hirsh D: Non-ageing developmental variant of Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 1976;260: 523– 525. 20 Le Bourg E: Predicting whether dietary restriction would increase longevity in species not tested so far.