By A. B. Bosworth
During this research, Bosworth appears to be like at Alexander the Great's actions in important Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photo of bloodbath and repression equivalent to the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and inspiration of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander via historians of antiquity. The booklet is directed to experts and normal readers alike.
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Additional resources for Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph
6. 11. 1; Curt. 9. 5. 20. On the background to this campaign see Ch. 5. 62 Arr. i~6 = FGrH 139 F 54. Cf. Berve ii nos. 101,618. The story is repeated by Plutarch (AI. 3-5), who claims that information was given against Apollodorus; according to Aristobulus he voluntarily confessed. Plutarch follows a tradition different from Aristobulus, in which Apollodorus was actually incriminated (so Hammond, Sources 142). The version of the story in App. BC 2. 152. 639-40 is an elaboration of Arrian (see now K.
5. 13. 1 (reports of the Macedonian crossing). According to Ptolemy (Arr. 14, 6 = FGrH 138 F 20) the Indian advance force arrived after Alexander had made his last crossing onto firm ground. Aristobulus (Arr. 5. 14. 3 = FGrH 139 F 43) was more dramatic, and claimed that the Indian forces might actually have prevented the crossing. That was a blatant exaggeration of the danger. Arrian was clearly right to opt for Ptolemy's version, which gave a reasonably large reconnaissance force of Indians, strong enough to risk an engagement with the vanguard of Alexander's cavalry (Arr.
1. It looks as though Apollodorus had been summoned to court at the same time as the Median generals. Although he was not convicted of any crime, he 24 The Shield of Achilles governors, including at least three of the military commanders in Media, and in understandable insecurity he wrote to his brother, the seer, who was still at Babylon, and asked him to read the entrails on the subject of his own welfare, and the people he most feared, namely the king and his favourite, Hephaestion. The first inspection produced an omen unfavourable to Hephaestion, and Apollodorus received the news the day before Hephaestion died (around October 324).