Download Analysis of Variance (Quantitative Applications in the by Gudmund R. Iversen PDF

By Gudmund R. Iversen

The second one variation of this e-book offers a conceptual figuring out of research of variance. It outlines tools for analysing variance which are used to check the impression of 1 or extra nominal variables on a based, period point variable. The e-book presumes merely common historical past in importance checking out and information research.

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Extra resources for Analysis of Variance (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences)

Example text

These numbers do not have much use in the analysis, even though it is sometimes easier to find the within-group sum of squares as the difference between the total sum of squares and the between-group sum of squares rather than directly, as we did above. The total sum of squares is obtained by subtracting the overall mean from each of the observations, squaring all these differences and adding them. The overall mean in the example is 5, and the total variation of the observations around this mean becomes With 10 observations this sum has 9 degrees of freedom.

25) will therefore be large. 21) will be small. In case C the situation is different. 50) is therefore small. 00) is large. The conclusion is that a large value of F tells us we have a significant difference between the two group means. From the t-table we recall that a value larger than 2 or smaller than 2 is usually significant. This means that with 2 groups, an F-value larger than 4 is similarly significant, since F is the square of t. 32 in order to call the observed difference significant with a 5% significance level.

These considerations are illustrated by the three different graphs in Figure 1. Graph A shows two numerically different means and From looking at the two means alone we cannot tell whether they are significantly different or not. In graphs B and C the difference between the two means is the same as in graph A, but graphs B and C also show the values of the five observations in each group. In graph B we see that within each of the two groups the observations are widely scattered around their respective means.

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